Cognitive Domain Information

Looking at HOW children learn. Children "construct" their understanding of the world through their active involvement and interactions.
At this stage, children become more aware of their strengths an weaknesses. They will often describe themselves in both physical and psychological terms. Children in middle childhood generally have high self-esteem although there is much comparision of themselves amongst their peers. They structure their self-esteem into different competencies such as:
  • Academic
  • Social
  • Physical
  • Physical appearance ( most crucial to how they see themselves)

Constructivism: the theory that children are ACTIVE learners, not passive observers.
They organize their knowledge in schemes, or blueprints of understanding. These schemes change through assimilation and accomidation.

Facilitating Cognitive Growth:
Present information that conflicts with what children currently believe as a way of helping them acquire more sophisticated understandings of the world.

The Concrete Operational Phase

Uses logical operations-cognitive understanding
ability to: conserve-something is the same even if it looks different
  • think flexibly
-senate-put things in order

-classify with more than one attribute and with hierarchical thinking.
-physical knowledge
  • objects
-Logical mathematical
-More abstract,classification,order...
-Social knowledge
  • Language,morals,learned through society (social ques)

Attention
Children in the elementary school age become better at focusing their attention despite environmental distractions. At middle childhood children develop into their teenage years, their attentiveness decreases. Children in middle childhood are not necessarily better at learning information that is irrelevant to their main learning goals.

Memory
The working memory increases with age because children apply their prior knowledge when learning new information.

Reading + Promoting Reading Development

Language
The child's understanding of temperal words (before and after) is increasing at this time. So is their understanding of comparitives ( bigger,as big as), however their knowledge of irregular word forms is still developing. Children tend to interpret messages literally. By the age of 8, children's pronunciation should be mastered. They also begin to take into consideration a listeners knowledge and perspective on a subject. Conversations can be sustained about concrete topics, narratives with plots, and cause and effect relationships. The ability to be linguistically creativity and use word play are also being mastered.

Thinking and Reasoning
Middle childhood children are better able to reflect on their own thought processes. Their awareness of the way they think and learn (metacognition) increases. Children discover that some things are more difficult than others and that their memories are not perfect.